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While FreeBSD is popular as a server for its performance and stability, it is also suited for day-to-day use as a desktop. With over applications available as FreeBSD packages or ports, it is easy to build a customized desktop that runs a wide variety of desktop applications. This chapter demonstrates how to install numerous desktop applications, including web browsers, productivity software, document viewers, and financial software.
Install additional software using packages or ports as described in Installing Applications: Packages and Ports. For information on how to configure a multimedia environment, refer to Multimedia. FreeBSD does not come with a pre-installed web browser.
Instead, the www category of the Ports Collection contains many browsers which can be installed as a package or compiled from the Ports Collection. This section demonstrates how to install the following popular web browsers and indicates if the application is resource-heavy, takes time to compile from ports, or has any major dependencies.
Firefox is an open source browser that features a standards-compliant HTML display engine, tabbed browsing, popup blocking, extensions, improved security, and more. Firefox is based on the Mozilla codebase. The Ports Collection can instead be used to compile the desired version of Firefox from source code.
Konqueror is more than a web browser as it is also a file manager and a multimedia viewer. WebKit is a rendering engine used by many modern browsers including Chromium.
Chromium is an open source browser project that aims to build a safer, faster, and more stable web browsing experience. Chromium features tabbed browsing, popup blocking, extensions, and much more. Chromium is the open source project upon which the Google Chrome web browser is based.
When it comes to productivity, users often look for an office suite or an easy-to-use word processor. While some desktop environments like KDE provide an office suite, there is no default productivity package.
Several office suites and graphical word processors are available for FreeBSD, regardless of the installed window manager. This section demonstrates how to install the following popular productivity software and indicates if the application is resource-heavy, takes time to compile from ports, or has any major dependencies. Calligra includes standard components that can be found in other office suites. Words is the word processor, Sheets is the spreadsheet program, Stage manages slide presentations, and Karbon is used to draw graphical documents.
To install the package:. It is fast, contains many features, and is user-friendly. For image authoring or picture retouching, The GIMP provides a sophisticated image manipulation program. It can be used as a simple paint program or as a quality photo retouching suite. It supports a large number of plugins and features a scripting interface. The GIMP can read and write a wide range of file formats and supports interfaces with scanners and tablets.
The graphics category freebsd. It includes all of the applications found in a complete office productivity suite: a word processor, spreadsheet, presentation manager, and drawing program. Its user interface is similar to other office suites, and it can import and export in various popular file formats.
It is available in a number of different languages and internationalization has been extended to interfaces, spell checkers, and dictionaries.
The spreadsheet program features a macro language which can be interfaced with external databases. More information about Apache OpenOffice can be found at openoffice.
For FreeBSD specific information refer to porting. Z is the version number of the installed version of Apache OpenOffice. The first time Apache OpenOffice launches, some questions will be asked and a. If the desired Apache OpenOffice package is not available, compiling the port is still an option. However, this requires a lot of disk space and a fairly long time to compile:. LibreOffice is a free software office suite developed by documentfoundation.
It is compatible with other major office suites and available on a variety of platforms. The word processor of LibreOffice uses a native XML file format for increased portability and flexibility. More information about LibreOffice can be found at libreoffice. The editors category freebsd. When installing a localized package, replace libreoffice with the name of the localized package.
During the first launch, some questions will be asked and a. If the desired LibreOffice package is not available, compiling the port is still an option. However, this requires a lot of disk space and a fairly long time to compile. This example compiles the English version:. To build a localized version, cd into the port directory of the desired language.
Supported languages can be found in the editors category freebsd. This section demonstrates how to install the following document viewers:.
It uses the standard X fonts and does not require any additional toolkits. Once the installation is complete, launch xpdf and use the right mouse button to activate the menu.
It is based on ghostview, but has a nicer look as it is based on the Xaw3d widget toolkit. Almost any operation can be performed with either the keyboard or the mouse. Geeqie is a fork from the unmaintained GQView project, in an effort to move development forward and integrate the existing patches. Geeqie is an image manager which supports viewing a file with a single click, launching an external editor, and thumbnail previews.
It also features a slideshow mode and some basic file operations, making it easy to manage image collections and to find duplicate files. Geeqie supports full screen viewing and internationalization. It is currently under development, but already opens most PDF files even encrypted , save copies of documents, and has support for printing using CUPS.
For managing personal finances on a FreeBSD desktop, some powerful and easy-to-use applications can be installed.
Some are compatible with widespread file formats, such as the formats used by Quicken and Excel. GnuCash can be used to keep track of income and expenses, bank accounts, and stocks. It features an intuitive interface while remaining professional. GnuCash provides a smart register, a hierarchical system of accounts, and many keyboard accelerators and auto-completion methods. It can split a single transaction into several more detailed pieces. It also handles most international date and currency formats.
It features convenient automatic guessing of user input according to the cell format with an autofill system for many sequences. It can import files in a number of popular formats, including Excel, Lotus , and Quattro Pro. It has a large number of built-in functions and allows all of the usual cell formats such as number, currency, date, time, and much more.
KMyMoney aims to provide the important features found in commercial personal finance manager applications. It also highlights ease-of-use and proper double-entry accounting among its features. KMyMoney imports from standard Quicken QIF files, tracks investments, handles multiple currencies, and provides a wealth of reports. Last modified on : December 11, by Sergio Carlavilla Delgado.
Book menu. Table of Contents 6. Synopsis 6. Browsers 6. Productivity 6. Document Viewers 6. Synopsis While FreeBSD is popular as a server for its performance and stability, it is also suited for day-to-day use as a desktop. Browsers FreeBSD does not come with a pre-installed web browser. Firefox Firefox is an open source browser that features a standards-compliant HTML display engine, tabbed browsing, popup blocking, extensions, improved security, and more.
Konqueror Konqueror is more than a web browser as it is also a file manager and a multimedia viewer. Chromium Chromium is an open source browser project that aims to build a safer, faster, and more stable web browsing experience. Alternatively, Chromium can be compiled from source using the Ports Collection:. Productivity When it comes to productivity, users often look for an office suite or an easy-to-use word processor. If the package is not available, it can be compiled from the Ports Collection:.
Once the package is installed, type the following command to launch Apache OpenOffice:. To build a localized version, replace the previous command with:.
LibreOffice LibreOffice is a free software office suite developed by documentfoundation. Once the package is installed, type the following command to run LibreOffice:. Geeqie Geeqie is a fork from the unmaintained GQView project, in an effort to move development forward and integrate the existing patches.
Finance For managing personal finances on a FreeBSD desktop, some powerful and easy-to-use applications can be installed.
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The kernel is the core of the FreeBSD operating system. It is responsible for managing memory, enforcing security controls, networking, disk access, and much more. While much of FreeBSD is dynamically configurable, it is still occasionally necessary to configure and compile a custom kernel. All of the commands listed in the examples in this chapter should be executed as root. Traditionally, FreeBSD used a monolithic kernel. Today, most of the functionality in the FreeBSD kernel is contained in modules which can be dynamically loaded and unloaded from the kernel as necessary.
This allows the running kernel to adapt immediately to new hardware and for new functionality to be brought into the kernel. This is known as a modular kernel.
Occasionally, it is still necessary to perform static kernel configuration. Sometimes the needed functionality is so tied to the kernel that it can not be made dynamically loadable.
Some security environments prevent the loading and unloading of kernel modules and require that only needed functionality is statically compiled into the kernel. Building a custom kernel is often a rite of passage for advanced BSD users. This process, while time consuming, can provide benefits to the FreeBSD system.
This has a number of benefits, such as:. Faster boot time. Since the kernel will only probe the hardware on the system, the time it takes the system to boot can decrease. Lower memory usage. This is important because the kernel code remains resident in physical memory at all times, preventing that memory from being used by applications. For this reason, a custom kernel is useful on a system with a small amount of RAM.
Additional hardware support. Before building a custom kernel, consider the reason for doing so. If there is a need for specific hardware support, it may already exist as a module.
Most kernel drivers have a loadable module and manual page. For example, the ath 4 wireless Ethernet driver has the following information in its manual page:.
This is mostly true for certain subsystems. On a dual-boot system, the inventory can be created from the other operating system. If FreeBSD is the only installed operating system, use dmesg 8 to determine the hardware that was found and listed during the boot probe. Most device drivers on FreeBSD have a manual page which lists the hardware supported by that driver. For example, the following lines indicate that the psm 4 driver found a mouse:. Since this hardware exists, this driver should not be removed from a custom kernel configuration file.
Another tool for finding hardware is pciconf 8 , which provides more verbose output. For example:. This output shows that the ath driver located a wireless Ethernet device. The -k flag of man 1 can be used to provide useful information. For example, it can be used to display a list of manual pages which contain a particular device brand or name:. Once the hardware inventory list is created, refer to it to ensure that drivers for installed hardware are not removed as the custom kernel configuration is edited.
In order to create a custom kernel configuration file and build a custom kernel, the full FreeBSD source tree must first be installed. This directory contains a number of subdirectories, including those which represent the following supported architectures: amd64 , i , powerpc , and sparc Instead, copy the file to a different name and make edits to the copy.
The convention is to use a name with all capital letters. The default editor is vi, though an easier editor for beginners, called ee, is also installed with FreeBSD. The format of the kernel configuration file is simple. Each line contains a keyword that represents a device or subsystem, an argument, and a brief description. Any text after a is considered a comment and ignored.
To remove kernel support for a device or subsystem, put a at the beginning of the line representing that device or subsystem. Do not add or remove a for any line that you do not understand. It is easy to remove support for a device or option and end up with a broken kernel. For example, if the ata 4 driver is removed from the kernel configuration file, a system using ATA disk drivers may not boot.
When in doubt, just leave support in the kernel. Alternately, keep the kernel configuration file elsewhere and create a symbolic link to the file:. An include directive is available for use in configuration files. This allows another configuration file to be included in the current one, making it easy to maintain small changes relative to an existing file.
If only a small number of additional options or drivers are required, this allows a delta to be maintained with respect to GENERIC , as seen in this example:.
As upgrades are performed, new features added to GENERIC will also be added to the local kernel unless they are specifically prevented using nooptions or nodevice. A comprehensive list of configuration directives and their descriptions may be found in config 5.
To build a file which contains all available options, run the following command as root :. Once the edits to the custom configuration file have been saved, the source code for the kernel can be compiled using the following steps:.
Install the new kernel associated with the specified kernel configuration file. Shutdown the system and reboot into the new kernel. If something goes wrong, refer to The kernel does not boot. By default, when a custom kernel is compiled, all kernel modules are rebuilt. For example, this variable specifies the list of modules to build instead of using the default of building all modules:.
Additional variables are available. Refer to make. If config fails, it will print the line number that is incorrect. If make fails, it is usually due to an error in the kernel configuration file which is not severe enough for config to catch. Review the configuration, and if the problem is not apparent, send an email to the FreeBSD general questions mailing list which contains the kernel configuration file. If the new kernel does not boot or fails to recognize devices, do not panic!
Fortunately, FreeBSD has an excellent mechanism for recovering from incompatible kernels. Simply choose the kernel to boot from at the FreeBSD boot loader. This can be accessed when the system boot menu appears by selecting the “Escape to a loader prompt” option.
At the prompt, type boot kernel. After booting with a good kernel, check over the configuration file and try to build it again. Also, dmesg 8 will print the kernel messages from the current boot. When troubleshooting a kernel, make sure to keep a copy of GENERIC , or some other kernel that is known to work, as a different name that will not get erased on the next build. This is important because every time a new kernel is installed, kernel.
As soon as possible, move the working kernel by renaming the directory containing the good kernel:. To fix this, recompile and install a world built with the same version of the source tree as the kernel. It is never a good idea to use a different version of the kernel than the rest of the operating system.
Last modified on : December 27, by Li-Wen Hsu. Book menu. Table of Contents 8. Synopsis 8. Why Build a Custom Kernel? Finding the System Hardware 8. The Configuration File 8.
Building and Installing a Custom Kernel 8. If Something Goes Wrong. When to build a custom kernel. How to take a hardware inventory. How to customize a kernel configuration file. How to use the kernel configuration file to create and build a new kernel. How to install the new kernel.
How to troubleshoot if things go wrong. Alternatively, to load the driver as a module at boot time, place the following line in loader. The Configuration File In order to create a custom kernel configuration file and build a custom kernel, the full FreeBSD source tree must first be installed. Building and Installing a Custom Kernel Once the edits to the custom configuration file have been saved, the source code for the kernel can be compiled using the following steps:.
Procedure: Building a Kernel. Change to this directory:.
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